In this section you can find documents that will help you to use Factor, and to best understand the methods that are computed. Some documents are developed by the authors of the program, some other documents have been proposed by users of the program.

Technical reports

Ferrando, P.J. & Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2020). Not positive definite inter-item correlation matrix and expected improper results in Unweighted Least Squares in the Exploratory Factor Analysis.. Technical Report. Department of Psychology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona.
Lorenzo-Seva, U. & Ferrando, P.J. (2020). Testing Sweet Smoothing algorithm via a simulation study. Technical Report. Department of Psychology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona.
Ferrando, P.J. & Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2013). Unrestricted item factor analysis and some relations with item response theory. Technical Report. Department of Psychology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona.
Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2013). How to determine the number of common factors using Hull method. Technical Report. Department of Psychology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona.
Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2013). Why rotate my data using Promin? Technical Report. Department of Psychology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona.
Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2013). How to report the percentage of explained common variance in exploratory factor analysis. Technical Report. Department of Psychology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona.
Baglin, J. (2014). Improving Your Exploratory Factor Analysis for Ordinal Data: A Demonstration Using FACTOR. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 19(5), 2.
Clark, M., & Skorupski, P. W. (2014). An Investigation into Statistical Methods to Identify Aberrant Response Patterns.
Ferrando, P.J, & Anguiano, C. (2010). El análisis factorial como técnica de investigación en psicología. Papeles del psicólogo, 31(1), 18-33.
Lloret, S., Ferreres, A., Hernández, A., & Tomás, I. (2017). The exploratory factor analysis of items: guided analysis based on empirical data and software. Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology, 33(2), 417-432.
Gaskin, C. J., & Happell, B. (2014). On exploratory factor analysis: A review of recent evidence, an assessment of current practice, and recommendations for future use. International journal of nursing studies, 51(3), 511-521.
Izquierdo, I., Olea, J., & Abad, F. J. (2014). El análisis factorial exploratorio en estudios de validación: usos y recomendaciones. Psicothema, 26(3), 395-400.
Dominguez, S. (2014). ¿ Matrices Policóricas/Tetracóricas o Matrices Pearson? Un estudio metodológico. Revista Argentina de Ciencias del Comportamiento, 6(1), 39-48.
Rogers, P. (2021). Best Practices for Your Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Factor Tutorial. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, e210085-e210085.
Zumbo, B. D., Gadermann, A. M., & Zeisser, C. (2007). Ordinal versions of coefficients alpha and theta for Likert rating scales. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 6(1), 4.

Teaching Videos

A video by Dr. Michael Crowson (Department of Educational Psychology, The University of Oklahoma, USA) to illustrate how to use Factor to analyze a dataset.
Video tutorials by Dr. Pablo Rogers (Faculdade de Gestão e Negócios | Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Brazil)

Program manuals

Manual of Factor 9.2 by Dr. G. Visco (Chemistry Department,  Rome University, Italy).
Manual del programa Factor 8.02 elaborado en español por Sergio Dominguez, Graciela Villegas y Noemi Sotelo (Facultad de Psicología y Trabajo Social, Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Perú).
Bektaş, H. (2017). Açıklayıcı faktör analizi. Beta.

Literature Corner

Literature corner. Are you tired of working? Do you need a short break? Here you have our proposal to get a five-minute read of intelligent and funny short-stories. You will find relates written in English, Spanish, and Catalan. We hope you like them! The short-stories included are: “The number that didn't understand maths”, “Little Mathematical Riding Hood”, “Zero”, and “Humanity: an experiment of uncertain viability”.

If your cup of tea are novels about university life, you might enjoy “El delicado regalo de los olivos milenarios” (also available in Catalan).


Some examples of applied research in different fields around the world

Abu-Ghazaleh, S. B., Rajab, L. D., Sonbol, H. N., Aljafari, A. K., Elkarmi, R. F., & Humphris, G. (2011). The Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale. Psychometrics and normative data for 15-16 year olds. Saudi medical journal, 32(7), 725-729.
Afonso Vieira, V., Monteiro, P. R., & Teixeira Veiga, R. (2011). Relationship marketing in supply chain: an empirical analysis in the Brazilian service sector. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 26(7), 524-531.
Barbu, O. C., Marx, R. W., Yaden Jr, D. B., & Levine-Donnerstein, D. (2015). Measuring approaches to learning in preschoolers: validating the structure of an instrument for teachers and parents. Education 3-13, (ahead-of-print), 1-17.
Begega, A., Méndez-López, M., De Iscar, M. J., Cuesta-Izquierdo, M., Solís, G., Fernández-Colomer, B., ... & Arias, J. L. (2010). Assessment of the global intelligence and selective cognitive capacities in preterm 8-year-old children. Psicothema, 22(4), 648-653.
Burt, S. A., & Donnellan, M. B. (2008). Personality correlates of aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(1), 53-63.
Dzhambov, A. M. (2014). Perceived benefits of nature questionnaire: preliminary results. Ecopsychology, 6(2), 109-115.
Ficapal-Cusí, P., Boada-Grau, J., Torrent-Sellens, J., & Vigil-Colet, A. (2014). Spanish adaptation of the Internal functioning of the Work Teams Scale (QFI-22). Psicothema, 26(2), 273-278.
Franke, T., & Krems, J. F. (2013). Understanding charging behaviour of electric vehicle users. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 21, 75-89.
Ginns, P., Fryer, L., Amazan, R., McCormick, A., & Loughland, A. (2014). Evaluation of the Learning to Teach for Social Justice–Beliefs Scale in an Australian context. Higher Education Research & Development, (ahead-of-print), 1-13.
Ginns, P., Marsh, H. W., Behnia, M., Cheng, J. H., & Scalas, L. F. (2009). Using postgraduate students' evaluations of research experience to benchmark departments and faculties: Issues and challenges. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), 577-598.
Gómez-Campelo, P., Bragado-Álvarez, C., Hernández-Lloreda, M. J., & Sánchez-Bernardos, M. L. (2015). The Spanish version of the Body Image Scale (S-BIS): psychometric properties in a sample of breast and gynaecological cancer patients. Supportive Care in Cancer, 23(2), 473-481.
Herrmann, E., Hernández‐Lloreda, M. V., Call, J., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. (2009). The structure of individual differences in the cognitive abilities of children and chimpanzees. Psychological Science.
Holm, S., Sandberg, S., Kolind, T., & Hesse, M. (2013). The importance of cannabis culture in young adult cannabis use. Journal of Substance Use, 19(3), 251-256.
Huang, S. Y. L., & Fisher, D. L. (2011). Associations of the university learning environment with academic engagement and satisfaction among science majors in Taiwan. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 20(2).
Humphris, G. M., Dyer, T. A., & Robinson, P. G. (2009). The modified dental anxiety scale: UK general public population norms in 2008 with further psychometrics and effects of age. BMC Oral Health, 9(1), 20.
Júnior, S., de Moura, É., & Hauck, S. (2009). Comment on" Factor structure of the Rutter Teacher Questionnaire in Portuguese children". Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 31(3), 283-284.
Leveau, L. M. (2013). Bird traits in urban–rural gradients: how many functional groups are there?. Journal of Ornithology, 154(3), 655-662.
Maack, D. J., Buchanan, E., & Young, J. (2014). Development and psychometric investigation of an inventory to assess fight, flight, and freeze tendencies: the Fight, Flight, Freeze Questionnaire. Cognitive behaviour therapy, (ahead-of-print), 1-11.
Maki, W. S., & Buchanan, E. (2008). Latent structure in measures of associative, semantic, and thematic knowledge. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15(3), 598-603.
Mampane, M. R. (2014). Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a South African township: Insights from a resilience questionnaire. South African Journal of Education, 34(4), 1-11.
Melli, G., Carraresi, C., Stopani, E., Radomsky, A. S., & Bulli, F. (2014). Factor structure and temporal stability of the Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory–Mental Contamination Scale (VOCI-MC) and psychometric properties of its Italian version. Comprehensive psychiatry.
Molina, J. G., García-Ros, R., & Keskinen, E. (2014). Implementation of the driver training curriculum in Spain: An analysis based on the Goals for Driver Education (GDE) framework. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 26, 28-37.
Nuttall, D., Birch, A., Trail, I. I., Espag, M. P., Clark, D. I., & Stanley, J. K. (2010). Assessing elbow assessment, past, present and future. Shoulder & Elbow, 2(1), 43-54.
Ortuño-Sierra, J., Fonseca-Pedrero, E., Paino, M., i Riba, S. S., & Muñiz, J. (2015). Screening mental health problems during adolescence: Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Journal of adolescence, 38, 49-56.
Parés Casanova, P. M., Sinfreu Blasi, I., & Villalba Mata, D. (2012). Principal component analysis of cephalic morphology to classify some Pyrenean cattle. Animal Genetic Resources, 2012, num. 50, p. 59-64.
Rodriguez-Fornells, A., Krämer, U. M., Lorenzo-Seva, U., Festman, J., & Münte, T. F. (2011). Self-assessment of individual differences in language switching. Frontiers in psychology, 2.
Saigí-Rubió, F., Torrent-Sellens, J., & Jiménez-Zarco, A. (2014). Drivers of telemedicine use: comparative evidence from samples of Spanish, Colombian and Bolivian physicians. Implementation Science, 9(1), 128.
Sampedro-Piquero, P., Begega, A., Zancada-Menendez, C., Cuesta, M., & Arias, J. L. (2013). Age-dependent effects of environmental enrichment on brain networks and spatial memory in Wistar rats. Neuroscience, 248, 43-53.
Uzun Özer, B., SaçKes, M., & Tuckman, B. W. (2013). Psychometric properties of the tuckman procrastination scale in a turkish sample 1. Psychological reports, 113(3), 874-884.
Veale, D., Eshkevari, E., Ellison, N., Cardozo, L., Robinson, D., & Kavouni, A. (2013). Validation of genital appearance satisfaction scale and the cosmetic procedure screening scale for women seeking labiaplasty. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 34(1), 46-52.
Vigil-Colet, A., Lorenzo-Seva, U., & Condon, L. (2008). Development and validation of the statistical anxiety scale. Psicothema, 20(1), 174-180.

Factor references in Google Scholar

Check all the references to Factor in Google Scholar